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Progress in Brain Research
, Pages 305-317
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This chapter presents the study that is designed to analyze the nature of the hippocampal involvement in learning. In recent years, increased attention has been paid to the neural mechanisms that play an important role in the inhibitory control of behavior. In the present series of experiments, involvement of the hippocampus in the inhibitory control of behavior is investigated. An increase in activity and the increased resistance to extinction in a runway are also observed after the hippocampal ablation. Several experiments and results of these experiments are given in the chapter to find out hippocampal ablation. All these findings suggest that the hippocampus plays an important role in the inhibitory control of behavior. Similar evidence regarding the inhibitory control has been obtained from the studies of passive avoidance. It is possible that these neural structures as well as the hippocampus form a common diffuse system which exerts an inhibitory control over the behavior.
- H. TeitelbaumA comparison of effects of orbitofrontal and hippocampal lesions upon discrimination learning and reversal in the cat
- H. Mahut et al.Spatial reversal deficit in monkeys with amygdalohippo-campal ablations
- C.M. Butter et al.Conditioning and extinction of a food-rewarded response after selective ablations of frontal cortex in rhesus monkeys
- S. Brutkowski
Comparison of classical and instrumental alimentary conditioned reflexes following bilateral prefrontal lobectomies in dogs
Acta Biol. exp.
- S. Brutkowski et al.
Alimentary type II (instrumental)conditioned reflexes in amygdala dogs
Acta Biol. exp.
- C.V.H. Clark et al.
Effect of bilateral hippocampal ablation on DRL performance
J. comp. physiol. Psychol.
- J.F. Dashiell, 1930 Direction orientation in maze running by the white rat. Comp. Psychol. Monogr....
- S. Diamond et al.
Inhibition and Choice: A Neurobehavioral Approach to Problems of Plasticity in Behavior.
- R.J. Douglas et al.
Hippocampal lesions and activity
- R.L. Isaacson et al.
Hippocampal ablation and passive avoidance
Hippocampal ablation and operant behavior in the rat
- The hearing hippocampus
2022, Progress in Neurobiology
The hippocampus has a well-established role in spatial and episodic memory but a broader function has been proposed including aspects of perception and relational processing. Neural bases of sound analysis have been described in the pathway to auditory cortex, but wider networks supporting auditory cognition are still being established. We review what is known about the role of the hippocampus in processing auditory information, and how the hippocampus itself is shaped by sound. In examining imaging, recording, and lesion studies in species from rodents to humans, we uncover a hierarchy of hippocampal responses to sound including during passive exposure, active listening, and the learning of associations between sounds and other stimuli. We describe how the hippocampus' connectivity and computational architecture allow it to track and manipulate auditory information – whether in the form of speech, music, or environmental, emotional, or phantom sounds. Functional and structural correlates of auditory experience are also identified. The extent of auditory-hippocampal interactions is consistent with the view that the hippocampus makes broad contributions to perception and cognition, beyond spatial and episodic memory. More deeply understanding these interactions may unlock applications including entraining hippocampal rhythms to support cognition, and intervening in links between hearing loss and dementia.
- Brightness discrimination learning under conditions of cue enhancement by rats with lesions in the amygdala or hippocampus
1977, Brain Research
Three groups of rats, one with amygdala lesions, one with hippocampal lesions and a control group were trained on a brightness discrimination task under one of three different conditions, enhancement of the negative cue, enhancement of the positive cue or a non-enhanced condition. Animals with amygdala lesions showed retarded learning compared with normal animals and those with hippocampal lesions under the positive cue enhancement condition. Under the negative cue enhancement condition animals with hippocampal lesions were significantly handicapped compared with the other two groups. Results are discussed in relation to the Douglas and Pribram5 concept of a reciprocal linking of the amygdala and hippocampal systems in discrimination learning with the amygdala functioning as a reinforce register system and the hippocampus as an error evaluation system.
- A persistence of responding in hyperstriatal chicks
1976, Behavioral Biology
Two-week-old Gallus chicks after lesion of the dorsal midline hyperstriatum accessorium are less easily distracted by novelty from the performance of a trained runway response than those with more lateral or posterior hyperstriatal damage or sham-operated controls. With dorsal midline hyperstriatal lesions, chicks also show delayed acquisition of a passive-avoidance task and an impaired response pattern on a delayed-response task compared to controls. The apparent continuation of the trained responding characteristic of chicks with these lesions when experimental contingencies change is tentatively compared with the behavior of mammals with limbic lesions.
- Stimulus control of behavior and limbic lesions in rats
1974, Physiology and Behavior
Rats with hippocampal lesions or sham operations learned a tone discrimination significantly faster than rats with amygdala lesions. Relative tone generalization gradients were significantly steeper for the animals with hippocampal lesions than for the other two groups. Performance on a light discrimination by the animals with hippocampal lesions was impaired, compared to the sham animals, when the tone (former S+) was present but irrelevant. The behavior of the amygdala animals was interpreted as being due to an inability to inhibit responding. The behavior of the animals with hippocampal lesions was interpreted as being due to an inability to shift attention from one stimulus to another.
- Discrimination learning and stimulus generalization in rats with hippocampal lesions
1973, Physiology and Behavior
Rats with hippocampal lesions and sham operated control animals were trained on a go-no-go tone discrimination. For half of the animals of each group the tone was the positive stimulus while for the other half the tone was negative. The hippocampal tone negative group took the greatest number of days to learn the task. Tone generalization tests administered the day after the learning criterion was reached did not yield any differences in either excitatory or inhibitory stimulus control between the hippocampal and sham animals.
- Selective olfactory bulb lesions: Reactivity changes and avoidance learning in rats
1972, Physiology and Behavior
Male rats with bilateral lesions in different parts of the olfactory system behaved differently on several tasks. All lesioned animals were hyperactive in an open field test, learned active shuttle-box avoidance faster, and were more difficult to handle than sham operates. Animals with lesions confined to the olfactory bulb proper defecated more on several measures than animals with lesions extending to the olfactory tubercle, and only deeply lesioned animals failed to learn a step-down passive avoidance task. In a startle testing apparatus, all lesioned animals habituated more quickly than sham operates although the minimally lesioned animals showed greater freezing responses than other lesioned groups. Results are discussed in terms of possible alterations in limbic function leading to site-dependent changes in motor reactivity or emotionality.
Research articlePeripheral viral infection induced microglial sensome genes and enhanced microglial cell activity in the hippocampus of neonatal piglets
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 54, 2016, pp. 243-251
Although poorly understood, early-life infection is predicted to affect brain microglial cells, making them hypersensitive to subsequent stimuli. To investigate this, we assessed gene expression in hippocampal tissue obtained from a previously published study reporting increased microglial cell activity and reduced hippocampal-dependent learning in neonatal piglets infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a virus that induces interstitial pneumonia. Infection altered expression of 455 genes, of which 334 were up-regulated and 121 were down-regulated. Functional annotation revealed that immune function genes were enriched among the up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs), whereas calcium binding and synaptic vesicle genes were enriched among the down-regulated DEGs. Twenty-six genes encoding part of the microglia sensory apparatus (i.e., the sensome) were up-regulated (e.g., IL1R1, TLR2, and TLR4), whereas 15 genes associated with the synaptosome and synaptic receptors (e.g., NPTX2, GABRA2, and SLC5A7) were down-regulated. As the sensome may foretell microglia reactivity, we next inoculated piglets with culture medium or PRRSV at PD 7 and assessed hippocampal microglia morphology and function at PD 28 when signs of infection were waning. Consistent with amplification of the sensome, microglia from PRRSV piglets had enhanced responsiveness to chemoattractants, increased phagocytic activity, and secreted more TNFα in response to lipopolysaccharide and Poly I:C. Immunohistochemical staining indicated PRRSV infection increased microglia soma length and length-to-width ratio. Bipolar rod-like microglia not evident in hippocampus of control piglets, were present in infected piglets. Collectively, this study suggests early-life infection alters the microglia sensome as well as microglial cell morphology and function.
Research articleTargeted deletion of HYBID (hyaluronan binding protein involved in hyaluronan depolymerization/ KIAA1199/CEMIP) decreases dendritic spine density in the dentate gyrus through hyaluronan accumulation
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 503, Issue 3, 2018, pp. 1934-1940
HYBID (hyaluronan binding protein involved in hyaluronan [HA] depolymerization, KIAA1199/CEMIP) is a key player in HA depolymerization of the skin fibroblasts, arthritic synovial fibroblasts, and brain. Our previous study demonstrated that Hybid knock-out (KO) mice showed spatial memorial impairment, which is accompanied by the accumulation of high molecular weight HA in the hippocampus. However, the mechanism underlying cognitive impairment by Hybid deficiency remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the HA distribution patterns in the brains of wild-type (WT) and Hybid KO mice by HA staining using HA binding protein, and found that in Hybid KO mice, HA is accumulated and doublecortin-positive immature neurons are significantly decreased in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, where Hybid mRNA is highly expressed in WT mice. The Golgi-Cox staining demonstrated that the dendritic spine density is significantly decreased in the dentate gyrus granule cells in Hybid KO mice. These results suggest that Hybid-mediated HA degradation is critical for the synaptic formation process by contributing to cognitive functions, such as learning and memory, in the mouse brain.
Research articleEffect of neonatal exposure to endocrine-active compounds on epigenetic regulation of gene expression in corpus luteum of gilts
Theriogenology, Volume 159, 2021, pp. 45-52
Recently, we have demonstrated that neonatal exposure to environmental endocrine-active compounds (EACs) with androgenic/antiandrogenic and estrogenic/antiestrogenic activities led to morphological and functional changes in the porcine corpus luteum (CL). To gain insight into the regulatory mechanisms of the long-term effects of EACs, we analyzed the impact of neonatal exposure of such compounds on global DNA methylation and the expression of miRNA biogenesis components in the porcine CL. Piglets were injected subcutaneously with testosterone propionate (TP, an androgen), flutamide (FLU, an antiandrogen), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP, an estrogenic compound), ICI 182,780 (ICI, an antiestrogen), methoxychlor (MXC, a compound with mixed activities) or corn oil (control) between postnatal days 1 and 10 (n=5/group). The CLs from sexually mature gilts were examined for global DNA methylation and for the abundance of proteins related to DNA methylation (DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B) and miRNA biogenesis (DROSHA, XPO5, DICER1, AGO2) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. ICI and MXC increased the global DNA methylation levels and DNMT1 protein abundance in the luteal tissue. OP treatment led to a lower DROSHA protein abundance, while ICI treatment resulted in a greater DROSHA protein abundance. Both FLU and ICI increased DICER1 protein abundance in the luteal tissue. In addition, XPO5 showed immunolocalization exclusively in small luteal cells in the OP-treated pigs, in contrast to localization in both small and large luteal cells in the controls. In conclusion, the changes in DNA methylation, as well as the altered miRNA biogenesis components, seem to be a part of the regulatory network that mediates the long-term effects of EACs on CL function in pigs.
Research articleUltra soft pseudo potential investigation of fundamental physical properties of CaXO3 (X=Sn and Hf) distorted perovskites: A reference study to the perfect perovskites
Physica B: Condensed Matter, Volume 429, 2013, pp. 95-105
The structural, electronic and optical properties of CaXO3 distorted perovskites compounds have been investigated by employing the Vanderbilt Ultra Soft Pseudo Potential (US-PP) using the plane wave method (PW) within density functional theory (DFT) and the local density approximation LDA. The studies of the dependence with pressure of enthalpies have confirmed the excellent mechanical stability of these materials. We have found that these compounds have a direct band gaps (G–G). The (110) charge density contour show that these distorted compounds exhibit a zig zag electronic short chains in contrast of ideal perovskites presenting a perfectly aligned chains. Elastic–electronic correlation was established between Cij individual elastic constant and the bonding-anti bonding chemical bonds. After that, some above properties were studied under hydrostatic pressure effect. CaSnO3 perovskite was very sensitive towards pressure than CaHfO3. The reflectivity maximum of these materials occurs in the ultra-violet energy ranges, which indicate that these perovskites can serve in some technological applications. Optical anisotropy shows that the compound CaSnO3 is considered as more anisotropic than CaHfO3. Furthermore, anisotropy maximum was found to be according to  and  directions for CaHfO3 and CaSnO3, respectively.
Research articleA hierarchical Bayesian approach to distinguishing serial and parallel processing
Journal of Mathematical Psychology, Volume 79, 2017, pp. 13-22
Research in cognitive psychology often focuses on how people deal with multiple sources of information. One important aspect of this research is whether people use the information in parallel (at the same time) or in series (one at a time). Various approaches to distinguishing parallel and serial processing have been proposed, but many do not satisfactorily address the mimicking dilemma between serial and parallel classes of models. The mean interaction contrast (MIC) is one measure designed to improve discriminability of serial–parallel model properties. The MIC has been applied in limited settings because the measure required a large number of trials and lacked a mechanism for group level inferences. We address these shortcomings by using hierarchical Bayesian analyses. The combination of the MIC with hierarchical Bayesian modeling gives a powerful method for distinguishing serial and parallel processing at both individual and group levels, even with a limited number of participants and trials.
Research articleExport diversification through resource-based industrialization: The case of natural gas
European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 237, Issue 3, 2014, pp. 1067-1082
For small resource-rich developing economies, specialization in raw exports is usually considered to be detrimental to growth and Resource-Based Industrialization (RBI) is often advocated to promote export diversification. This paper develops a new methodology to assess the performance of these RBI policies. We first formulate an adapted mean-variance portfolio model that explicitly takes into consideration: (i) a technology-based representation of the set of feasible export combinations and (ii) the cost structure of the resource processing industries. Second, we provide a computationally tractable reformulation of the resulting mixed-integer nonlinear optimization problem. Finally, we present an application to the case of natural gas, comparing current and efficient export-oriented industrialization strategies of nine gas-rich developing countries.
More complete reports will be published in Jap. Psychol. Res., 7, 1965, 8, 1967.
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